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Thr s dstnct cnnctn btwn rt nd dvrtsng. Thr r thr mjr vsul rts, sculptur, pntng, nd rchtctur. f ths thr rts, vry ffctv dvrtsng s md pssbl by sculptur nd pntng. Rbb, Dvd M. nd J. J. Grrsn, rt n Th Wstrn Wrld, Hrpr & Rw Publshrs, Nw Yrk, Nw Yrk, 1963, p. 9 frml dfntn f rt s Fr wrk f rt s th dfntn n cmprhnsbl frm f ssntl truth s th rtst bcms wr f t n xprnc. bd., p. 2 rltnshp rss btwn wrk f rt nd th bsrvr tht s cmplx, ntngbl, nd undmnstrbl nd vrs grtly wth ch bsrvr. Th buty tht rsults frm btnng cmplt undrstndng f wrk f rt s drvd frm th sns f nrchmnt, f grtr brdth nd dpth n th lf f th bsrvr whn h rlzs ths buty s lstng nd vtl cntrbutn t hs lf. Th rtst must brng ut tw fctrs n ny wrk f rt, nmly bjctv fcts f th subjct whch th rtsts ttmpts t brng ut n hs nlyss nd th synthss f th rsults f tht nlyss. phtgrph s dstnct frm rt. t s rcrd, ssntlly mrrr mg, f th fcts f pprnc nd cntns lttl f ny f th tmlss nd chrctrstc qulty ncssry f wrk f rt, f ths fcts r t bcm sgnfcnt. bd., pp. 4-5

Thr r thr rbtrry, but dstnct grups f rtsts wrkng tdy: fn rtsts, cmmrcl rtsts, nd llustrtrs. Th dffrnc btwn rtsts s dtrmnd by th ntndd udnc. Th fn rtst prducs sngl pc f rt, whch s dsplyd n shwngs, gllrs, nd musums, nd xpcts hs udnc t cm t hm. Th cmmrcl rtst gs ftr n udnc numbrng n th mllns, by prducng nxpnsv prntd rprductns. nthr dffrnc s tht fn rt vrtully nvr ncrprts wrttn mssg whrs cmmrcl rt vrtully lwys ncluds n. Th llustrtr prducs pcturs, drwngs, nd llustrtns undr suprvsn f n ntrmdry n th cmmrcl rt fld. Snydr, Jhn, Cmmrcl rtst's Hndbk, Wtsn-Guptll Publctns, Nw Yrk, Nw Yrk, 1973, p. 10

dvrtsng cn b clld cntrlld, dntfbl prsusn utlzng mns f mss cmmunctns. Nlsn, Ry Pul, Th Dsgn f dvrtsng, Wm. C. Brwn Publshrs, Dubuqu, w, 1973, p. 1 Prfssr Mx Wls tld hs clsss n dvrtsng t th Unvrsty f rgn: `ftn dvrtsrs chs t prmt prduct bnfts tht r psychlgcl, mtnl, vn slly. T xpln ths bnfts n wrds prvs mbrrssng. r rdculus. S dvrtsrs xpln thm ndrctly--thrugh rt. Th rt drctr, thn, rthr thn th cpywrtr, wrts th d.' Wls cts th mny ds shwng prducts bng njyd n luxurus r ntrgung sttngs. bd., p. 20 Th purps f dvrtsng s t brng tgthr ll f th vrus lmnts nt n r t chv n ntrctn tht wll cmmunct mssg wthn gvn cntxt. Th mssg my b cnvyd nd vn mnpultd by crfully jugglng th vsul lmnts. Ths lmnts r ssntlly wrds, phtgrphs, llustrtns, nd grphc mgs, cmbnd wth cntrllng frc f blck, wht, nd clr. Swn, ln, Hw T Undrstnd nd Us Dsgn nd Lyut, Nrth Lght Bks, Cncnnt, h, 1987, p. 11

Th purpss f dvrtsmnts r: (1) t ttrct ttntn t tslf; (2) t nlst th vwrs ntrst; (3) t shw th vwr mns f stsfyng wnt r nd thrugh purchs f th prduct r srvc. f th dvrtsng dvcts n d, th d s dsgnd t crt n ffnty fr tht d; (4) t cnvnc th vwr t buy th prduct, srvc, r d; (5) t shw th vwr hw nd whr t buy th prduct r srvc r t tk sm spcfc curs f ctn. Nlsn, Ry Pul, Th Dsgn f dvrtsng, Wm. C. Brwn Publshrs, Dubuqu, w, 1973, p. 32 t s rdly pprnt tht th bst wy t prmt n dvrtsmnt s t crfully crft n rt wrk t crry th mssg t th ntndd udnc.

TV cmmrcls must vrcm tw mjr hndcps, n bng th hstlty th udnc hrbrs fr ths knd f dvrtsng, nd th thr bng th xcss numbr f cmmrcls prvlnt n ny gvn tm prd. bd., p. 192 Thr r thr mjr ctgrs f cmmrcls: (1) th stry; (2) th slc-f-lf cmmrcl; nd (3) th tstmnl. Th prmtrs usd t vlut th cmmrcl r bsd n th fllwng: (1) wht kng f prsns s th cmmrcl?; (2) d thy undrstnd t?; (3) d thy rmmbr t?; (4) ds t ltr thr pnn f th prduct?; (5) wll thy buy th prduct?. bd., p. 193 Ths r prmtrs tht th cmmrcl rtst must dhr t whn h dsgns cmmrcl. ny typ f dvrtsmnt, whthr f th prntd mdum r th lctrnc mdum, rqurs rtsts wth gd blts t dsgn ntllgnt mtrl s tht n ntndd udnc cn b nducd t ct n sm mnnr.

Pstrs cnvyng vsul mssg, hv bn usd fr svrl thusnd yrs. Hnc, pstrs r rlly nthr dvrtsng md. Th Hmmurb lw cd s n f th rlst pstrs knwn n hstry. t ws nscrbd n drt stl, ght ft n lngth ( grnt rck), nd cntnd twnty-n hrzntl clumns bv whch pprd bs-rlf f Kng Hmmurb nd th Sun Gd wh dlvrd t hm th lws f th Kngdm. Ths rlst pstr s dtd smwhr btwn 2067 nd 2025 BC. Hllr, Bvs, Pstrs, Wdnfld & Nclsn 5 Wnsly Strt, Lndn, nglnd, 1969, p. 11

n rly nntnth cntury nglnd, lmst ll pctrl pstrs wr f th lttrprss-nly knd. whch ld t dffcults wth sm f th lltrt Lndn bll-stckrs wh tndd t stck th pstrs upsd dwn. brkwy frm th nn-pctrl pstr ws ld by th Ryl cdmcns, mmbrs f th Pr-Rphrlt ctr, th St. Jhn's Wd Clqu. n 1871, Frdrck Wlkr dsgnd pwrful pstr fr Wlk Clln's Wmn n Wht, stg dpttn t th lympc Thtr. ngrvd n wd by W. H. Hpr, t shwd hvly drpd wmn wth hr fngr t hr lps pnng dr n t strry nght-- gd dvc fr drwng th y nt th pstr nd fr hldng t thr by mystry nd suspns. bd., p. 23 Wlkr s qutd s syng m mprssd n dng ll cn wth frst ttmpt t wht cnsdr mght dvlp nt mst mprtnt brnch f rt. Wlkr's frnd Hnry Stck Mrks, bst knwn fr hs pntngs f bdrggld strks, dsgnd `Mnks Shvng' s pstr fr Prs Sp. t ws mst unfrtunt tht dvrtsrs gv t th rthr npprprt cptn: ` hv fund (t) mtchlss fr th hnds nd cmplxn.' lthugh th pctur s dmnnt, th pstr shws n cncptn f th prduct nd th mssg s lst. bd., pp. 23-26 n ffctv pstr nds clrty f bth th pctur nd prntd mssg t b succssful. Th jvl dnr-ut, th mn f knwng plt, my pss by th mr pdntc pstr, but my gthr whr h shll fnd Brdux wthut stnt, r Chmpgn r rr lquurs. bd., p. 15

But t s nt fr nthng tht w lv n th g f dvrtsng, nd undr th rgn f th d cptndum. Crfty publshrs sd bk culd b ts wn dvrtsr. t sprtd th mst brllnt clrs lk muntbnk n prd; t md ts bd frm th wndw f th bkshp nd thrw dust n th ys f th crdulus pssrby. But hvn frbd tht shuld sy nythng drgtry f dvrtsng, whch s ncssty f ur dy nd th vry sul f busnss, spclly n bksllng. lxndr, rsn nd M. H. Splmn, H. C. Bunnr, ugust Jcc, Th Mdrn Pstr, Chrls Scrbnr's Sns, Nw Yrk, Nw Yrk, 1895, pp. 3-4 (Nt! Th 1895 Cpyrght Dt s ccurt) t s stblshd tht dsr fr dvrtsng vrrds rtstc ntntn n rfrnc t th llustrtn f bk-cvrs. n fct, th mr nsgnfcnt nd cmmnplc th bk, th ludr ws th cvr. Th vgu f th llustrtd cvr ws strtd but 1885 by tru rtst, ntd s n f th mst rgnl nd subtl f hs tm, Juls Chrt. Chrt ws lrdy knwn fr hs suprb pstrs, whch wr grly sught ftr by cllctrs, nd drnd lmst vry pntr's nd sculptr's stud. Juls Lvy, wh knw Chrt wll, ws th frst t ppl t th grt rtst t dsgn n rnmntl dsgn fr th cvr f bks h publshd. Th pstr mn durng th lttr prt f th nntnth cntury furnshd mtrl fr sm rch nd curus cllctns, whch gnrtd whl brnch f cmmrc nd ndustry. Prvusly, nly fw pstrs by . Dlcrx, Nntul, Dumr, Gvrn, Hnr Mnnr, nd Mnt, md up th ntr brnch f ths rt. Chrt's rrvl n th rt scn gnrtd n ntrly nw ndustry. H prducd hundrds f pstrs tht wr n hgh dmnd, nd vry pntr ws mbtus t bcm Chrt--but nn lct mnbus. bd., pp. 5-24

Frm 1880 t 1900, th pstr ws trnsfrmd frm vulgr dsfgurmnt f th strts nt n rt frm nd vn cllctr's pry: t dd f nght, th rl fntcs wuld stl ut wth dmp spngs t tk th cvtd Chrt r Lutrc ff th wlls. Th pstr ls ctd s crrrs f `tht strng dcrtv dss', rt Nuvu. Bfr th 1880s, pstrs hd bn mdld n, r nly slghtly dptd frm th cdmc pntng; nw th pntrs bgn t tk thr cu frm th pstrsts Hllr, Bvs, Pstrs, Wdnfld & Nclsn 5 Wnsly Strt, Lndn nglnd, 1969, p. 79

Mx Brbhm md cyncl bsrvtn n th 1930s tht w nd nthr wr--t brng ut th bst n ur rtsts nd t kll f th wrst f thm. bd., p. 262 n f th bst wrtm pstrsts, shly Hvndr wrt ftr Wrld Wr tht th wr xpndd th pprtunts fr th rtst n mny wys, vn thugh th mphss shftd wy frm dvrtsng cmmrcl prducts s th wr prgrssd. Th mjrty f ffcl pstrs wr mdrn vvd dsgns f lmst ll th cmbtnt cuntrs xcpt Jpn. Jpns rt dsgn n mltry pstrs ws pdstrn cmprd t th vnt-grd rt dsplyd n Jpns pstrs f th lt nntnth cntury. Pstr thms f Wrld Wr wr dsgnd t ttrct rcruts, but th mss cnscrptn's n Wrld Wr shftd th thms t ptrtc bss. bd. Frm th nd f Wrld Wr untl th rly 1960s n unsy skrmsh nd cmprms dvlpd btwn phtgrphy nd grphcs n th pstr. Th Swss schl f dsgnrs bgn usng phtgrphy wdly n pstrs n th 1930s. Th mvmnt twrd phtgrphc pstrs ws ntnsfd by th cmpttn f tlvsn whch brught mgs f prducts rght nt th hm wth cnvncng rlsm. bd., pp. 267-268 Tdy, mst mdrn pstrs r mss prducd but stll rqur th wrk f rtsts t cnvy mssg. bd., p. 12

Th mgzn cvr hs bn dsgnd wth mgntn nd buty by mny f th mst clbrtd rtsts n th wrld. Sm f ths wth ntrntnl rputtns r: Hnr Mtss, Pbl Pcss, Hnr d Tulus-Lutrc, Slvdr Dl, nd ndy Wrhl. Fr vrus rsns, whn th cus ws rght r th mgzn butful nugh, rtsts f hgh clbr prducd mgnfcnt lthgrphs, phtgrphs, l pntngs, chrcl nd wtr clr drwngs spclly fr th mgzn cvr. Kry, Ptrc Frntz, Grt Mgzn Cvrs f th Wrld, bbrvll Prss Publshr, Nw Yrk, Nw Yrk, 1982, p. 13 Wth th mrgnc f th nw, mdrn mgzn t th nd f th nntnth cntury, rtstc llustrtn n dvrtsng cm f g. Lgns f rtsts, dvrs n snsblts, btnd wrk llustrtng fr prdcls. Sm f ths rtsts wr frmr sl pntrs wh wntd t ntrduc th rt Nuvu t mss udnc. thr rtsts wr prmrly ntrstd n xprmntng wth th nw md f th mgzn, whch culd rprduc rt phtgrphclly nd ls prnt n clr. bd., p. 153 nlyzng th wrk f mgzn cvr rtsts frm wd vrty f cuntrs, rtstc prsusns, nd mny rs, ylds frsh prspctv f th rt vr th pst 150 yrs. Bfr th md-1920s lttl dffrnc xstd btwn fn nd cmmrcl rt. rtsts rund th turn f th cntury sw rt s rt nd dd nt s t s lss grnd just bcus t ws rprducd fr mgzn (s sm wuld supps tdy). Rthr, cvr wrk nhncd thr rputtns bcus mr ppl bcm wr f thr wrk. bd., p. 19 Mgzn cvrs hv bn n mprtnt cntrbutn t ur culturl wrnss nd hstrcl undrstndng, prsntng vsul rcrd f humn ds nd scl mvmnts s wll s sgnfcnt hstrcl mmnts. Mgzns rgnd fr but cntury s th prmry vsul rcrd f vrydy lf untl dsplcd by tlvsn n th 1950s. n fct, mgzns rcrdd th xctmnt crtd by thr mjr nvntns f th lst cntury--th bcycl, th utmbl, nd th rpln. bd., pp.. 19-20 Tdy, ur prmry vsul mdum s prbbly tlvsn, wth bth gd nd rlly hrrbl dvrtsmnts

Ths rprt hs shwn tht sm f th rlst dvrtsng mplyng rt ws th Hmmurb lw cd ngrvd n grnt rck pprxmtly fur thusnd yrs g. Snc tht tm dvrtsng rt hs bn mplyd n pstrs, bk cvrs, nd mgzns wth th xprssd purps f prmtng prduct r d. Tdy, much f th dvrtsng w r xpsd t s frm th lctrnc mdum, mnly tlvsn. Sm f th tlvsn cmmrcls r rtfully dn, but lrgr pr cnt f thm r qut prly dn. rcnt tlvsn cmmrcl shwng tw suppsdly Grmn ngnrs drvng Prsch utmbl crss mrc. Durng ths sjurn, th tw Grmn ngnrs cqur trsurs frm vrus rgns n th Untd Stts. Ths dvrtsmnt cnvys vvd vsul mssg mplyng rt. Th vwr s ld t blv tht h cn dscvr th gd lf by smply buyng Prsch.

Ths dvrtsmnts tht w r dly xpsd t n bth th prnt mdum nd th lctrnc mdum us rtsts t shw th vsul mssg clrly. n rt, bjcts r rprsntd n trms f n mpld ln t ncurg us t s smlrty btwn bjcts tht r qut dffrnt. Th tr, th tll buldng, th clumn, r th stndng fgur bcm cnnctd n ur mnd by vrtu f thr vrtclty. Lwry, Bts, Th Vsul xprnc, n ntrductn T rt, Prntc-Hll, nc., nglwd Clffs, Nw Jrsy, 1964, p. 27 Ths r rt tchnqus tht r usd dly n dvrtsmnts t ttrct ur ttntn. dvrtsng s rlly n rt n tslf, snc ch f us prcvs rlty n slghtly dffrnt mnnr, sm mr s thn thrs. s phlsphr nc bsrvd, Thr's n such thng s rlty, nly ur prcptn f t: Hss, Dck nd Mrn Mullr, Drfsmn & CBS, mrcn Shwcs, nc., Nw Yrk, Nw Yrk, 1987, p. 27 Ths mns tht ch f us wll ntrprt rt n dvrtsng n ur wn unqu wy dpndnt upn ur prtculr systm f blfs f rlty.

BBLGRPHY

1.lxndr, rsn nd M. H. Splmn, H. C. Bunnr, ugust Jcc, Th MdrnPstr, Chrls Scrbnr's Sns, Nw Yrk, Nw Yrk, 1895

2.Hss, Dck nd Mrn Mullr, Drfsmn & CBS, mrcn Shwcs, nc.,

Nw Yrk, Nw Yrk, 1987

3.Hllr, Bvs, Pstrs, Wdnfld & Nclsn 5 Wnsly Strt, Lndn, nglnd, 1969

4.Kry, Ptrc Frntz, Grt Mgzn Cvrs f th Wrld, bbrvll Prss

Publshr, Nw Yrk, Nw Yrk

5.Lwry, Bts, Th Vsul xprnc, n ntrductn t rt, Prntc-Hll, nc.,

nglwd Clffs, Nw Jrsy, 1964

6.Nlsn, Ry Pul, Th Dsgn f dvrtsng, Wm. C. Brwn Publshrs,

Dubuqu, w, 1973

7.Rbb, Dvd M. nd J. J. Grrsn, rt n Th Wstrn Wrld, Hrpr & Rw

Publshrs, 1963

8.Snydr, Jhn, Cmmrcl rtst's Hndbk, Wtsn-Guptll Publctns,

Nw Yrk, Nw Yrk, 1973

9.Swn, ln, Hw T Undrstnd nd Us Dsgn nd Lyut, Nrth Lght

Bks, Cncnnt, h, 1987


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