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: Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine

1. Educational System in Great Britain

Types of Schools

All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they are 16.

Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are 17 or 18.

Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence tests. There

were different types of state secondary schools and at the age of 11 children

went to different schools in accordance of with the results of the tests.

State schools are divided into the following types:

- Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools

are usually those who show a preference for academic subjects, although many

grammar schools now also have some technical courses.

- Technical schools. Some children go to technical

schools. Most courses there are either commercial or technical.

- Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in

working with there hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical

schools and learn some trade.

- Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine

all types of secondary education. They have physic, chemistry, biology

laboratories, machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography,

history and art departments, commercial and domestic courses.

There are also many schools which the State doesnt control. They are private

schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them are

boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.

After leaving school many young people go to colleges or further education.

Those who become students at Colleges of Technology (called Techs) come

from different schools at different ages between 15 and 17. The lectures at

such colleges, each an hour long, start at 8,15 and end at 4,45 in the

afternoon.

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British Schools

Schooling is voluntary under the age of 5 but there is some free nursery

school education before that age. Primary education takes place in infant

schools for pupils ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools (from 8 to

11 years). Some areas have different systems in which middle schools replace

junior schools and take pupils ages from 9 to 11 years. Secondary education

has been available in Britain since 1944. It is compulsory up to the age of

16, and pupils can stay at school voluntarily up to three years longer.

In 1965 non-selective comprehensive schools were introduced. Most local

education authorities were have now completely changed over to comprehensive

schooling.

At the age of 16 pupils take school-leaving examinations in several subjects

at the Ordinary level. The exam used to be conducted by eight independent

examining boards, most of them connected with the university. This

examination could also be taken by candidates at a further education

establishment. This exam was called the General Certificate of Education

(GCE). Pupils of comprehensive school had taken the examination called the

Certificate of Secondary Education either with or instead of the GCE.

A GCE of Advanced (A) level was taken two years after the Ordinary level

exam. It was the standard for entrance to university and to many forms of

professional training. In 1988 both examinations were replaced by the more or

less uniform General Certificate of Secondary Education.

The private sector is running parallel to the state system of education.

There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. Most private

schools are single-sex until the age of 16. More and more parents seem

prepared to take on the formidable extra cost of the education. The reason is

the believe that social advantages are gained from attending a certain

school. The most expansive day or boarding schools in Britain are exclusive

public schools like Eton college for boys and St. James school for girls.

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Universities and Colleges in Great Britain.

There are over 90 universities in GB. They are divided into three types: the

old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities), in the 19th

century universities, such as London and Manchester universities, and the new

universities. Some years ago there were also polytechnics. After graduating

from polytechnic a student got a degree, but it was not a university degree.

31 formers polytechnics were given university status in 1992.

Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Art or Science. Most

degree courses at universities last three years, language courses 4 years

(including year spent aboard). Medicine and dentistry courses are longer (5-7

years).

Students may receive grants from the Local Education Authority to help pay

for books, accommodation, transport, and food. This grant depends on the

income of their parents.

Most students live away from home, in flats of halls of residence.

Students dont usually have a job during term time because the lessons called

lectures, seminars, classes of tutorials (small groups), are full time.

However, many students now have to work in the evenings.

University life is considered an experience. The exams are competitive but

the social life and living away from home are also important. The social life

is excellent with a lot of clubs, parties, concerts, bars.

There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges. Colleges offer

courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some professions

connected with medicine.

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2. Educational System in the USA

General Pattern of Education in the USA

The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary

school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called 84 plan

organization. It is proceeded, in many localities, by nursery schools and

kindergartens. It is followed by a four-year college and professional

schools. This traditional pattern, however, has been varied in many

different ways. The 63 3 plan consists of a six-year elementary school, a

three-year junior high school, and a three-year senior high school. Another

variation is a 66 plan organization, with a six-year elementary school

followed by a six-year secondary school.

American education provides a program for children, beginning at the age of 6

and continuing up to the age of 16 in some of the states, and to 18 in

others.

The elementary school in the United States is generally considered to

include the first six or eight grades of the common-school system, depending

upon the organization that has been accepted for the secondary school. It

has been called the "grade school" or the "grammar school".

There is no single governmental agency to prescribe for the American school

system, different types of organization and of curriculum are tried out.

The length of the school year varies among the states. Wide variation exists

also in the length of the school day. A common practice is to have school in

session from 9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from 1:00 to 3:30 in the

afternoon, Monday through Friday. The school day for the lower grades is

often from 30 minutes to an hour shorter. Most schools require some homework

to be done by elementary pupils. Elementary Schools, High Schools and

Institutions of Higher Learning

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Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of

Higher Learning

There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is

followed by four years of secondary school, or high school. Often the last

two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are combined

into a junior high school.

The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in September and

sometimes a shorter one in spring. There are slight variations from place to

place. Students enter the first grade at the age of six and attendance is

compulsory in most states until the age of sixteen or until the student has

finished the eighth grade.

The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally

larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A small

town generally has several elementary schools and one high school. In some

rural communities the one-room country school house still exists. Here may be

found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one through eight, all taught

by the same teacher.

Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the

elementary school. During the four-year high school program the student

studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each of these

subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In addition, the student

usually has classes in physical education, music, and art several times a

week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of

the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in order

to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation.

Institutions of higher learning supported by public funds are not absolutely

free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or

registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside the state.

Working one's way through college is commonplace.

Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for

those who have finished high school within the state. Sometimes a certain

pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state

universities require a certain scholastic average, or average of high school

grades.

Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known ones

such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic requirements for

entrance, including an examination.

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Higher Education Institutions

It has become common for the college program to be divided into broad fields,

such as languages and literature, the social sciences, the sciences and

mathematics, and the fine arts .Many colleges require all freshmen and

sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in each of three fields.

Certain Courses, such as English or history, may be required for all, with

some election permitted in the other fields.

Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of regents or

a board of trustees.

The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the

president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are

headed by deans. Within a school or college there may be departments

according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a

professor who is designated as department head or chairman. Other members of

the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant professor,

associate professor, and professor. Graduate students who give some part-time

service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.

Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law,

engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teaching, etc. is pursued in professional

schools which may be part of a university or may be separate institutions

which confine their instruction to a single profession. Often two, three, or

four years of pre-professional liberal arts education are required before

admission to a professional school. Three to five years of specialized

training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of Medicine, Bachelor

of Law, etc.

7

Private and State Colleges and Universities

Harvard College was established in 1636, with the principal purpose of providing

a literate ministry1 for colonial churches. It was a small

institution, enrolling only 20 students in 1642 and 60 in 1660. It soon became

more than a theological training school2 and established itself as

a liberal arts college. The next institution of higher learning established in

the American colonies was the College of William and Mary, which opened in 1693

at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other colleges were founded in the next century,

but all of them remained small schools for long periods. Students entered at

the age of 14 and remained until they were 18, and the curriculum, while

rigidly academic and classic was by modern standards rather secondary in

nature.

Private colleges and universities were established in various states. The

first state university was the University of Virginia, founded in 1819. Some

state universities have large endowment funds1 which provide a

substantial portion of their support. Other sources of income are student

fees, gifts and endowments.

In general, higher education in the USA may be divided into two broad

fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may be further

subdivided into undergraduate and graduate levels. The liberal arts program,

on the undergraduate level, may be a two-year junior college course, or a

four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of

Science. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a lower division

(which may be called the junior college), consisting of the two first years,

and the upper division, which is the last two years. The first two years

continue the general education and specialization begins in the third year.

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3. Educational System in Ukraine.

Ukrainians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to

education is stated in the constitution of Ukraine. Its ensured by

compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education

establishment. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and

evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.

Education in Ukraine is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The stages

of compulsory schooling in Ukraine are: primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-

10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior

school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school

wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay at school for two

more years. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of study.

Every school has a core curriculum of academic subjects, such as.

After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offer

programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a technical

field, or a profession.

After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium

one can go into higher education. All applicants must take competitive exam.

Higher education institution, that is institutes or universities, offer a 5-

years programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of

fields, as well as a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives

a candidates degree or a doctoral degree.

Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are in

charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has a

number of faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate and

doctoral degrees.

The system of higher and secondary education in Ukraine is going trough a

transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to decentralize

the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give

more academic freedom to faculties and students. All secondary schools,

institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now

there is quite a number of private fee-paying primary and secondary schools,

some universities have fee-paying departments.

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4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class

How do you evaluate

the following

Like

(number of pupils)

Dont like

(number of pupils)

Indifferent

(number of pupils)

School

27

6

3

Subjects:
Literature

21

5

12

Mathematics

11

23

5

History

19

7

12

Geography

29

6

3

Biology

23

10

6

English

32

4

2

Music

25

12

2

Art

20

11

8

Out-of-class activities

24

4

11

Sports/Gym classes

22

13

4

School library

27

10

2

School canteen

23

3

13

Learning to get along with others

25

9

5

Making friends

34

0

5

10

5. Used Literature:

1. Internet

11

Contents

1. Educational System in Great Britain

Types of Schools

British Schools

Universities and Colleges in Great Britain

2.Educational System in the USA

General Pattern of Education in the USA

Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of Higher learning

Higher Education Institutions

Private and State Colleges

3. Educational System in Ukraine

4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class

5. Used Literature

1

Educational System

in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine.

Boyko Maksim

Form 8-V

Ukrainian Grammar

School #6


2010